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Carnitines

Introduction

Function

In exfoliating/reparative formulations

Sting potential of L-Carnitine

Exfoliation properties of L-Carnitine

Skin moisturization with L-Carnitine

Cell growth

fat metabolism

Advantage

Applications

Specification

Exfoliation properties of L-Carnitine

In healthy skin, the outer most cells in the horny layer are constantly being sloughed off and replaced by new cells generated in the basal layer of the epidermis. The time needed by a new generation of cells to travel from the basal to the upper horny layer represents the renewal time of the epidermis. When the equilibrium of the skin is altered, dead cells tend to accumulate in the outer layers, the turnover rate declines and the renewal time increases. As we age, the time required for skin renewal also increases. In young and middleaged adults the renewal time is approximately 20 days, whereas in adults over 50 the rate of turnover slows and the renewal time may increase to as much as 30 days. Typically, removal of the dead skin cells and increasing the rate of skin turnover has the result of leaving the skin looking younger and healthier. The ability of exfoliating hydroxyacids such as glycolic and lactic acids to accelerate the turnover rate of skin cells and to leave the skin looking younger and healthier is well known. Hydroxyacids have their maximum exfoliating effect at low pH, and it is for this reason that exfoliating creams and lotions are typically found to be at a pH between 3.5 and 4.5. However in contrast to the hydroxyacids typically used for exfoliation (e.g. lactic, glycolic, and salicylic), L- Carnitine actually exfoliates better at a pH closer to 7 than it does at lower pH. This in all likelihood is due to the zwiterionic nature of the compound.

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